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Podrumi Dioklecijanove palače

6A

 

MUZEJ GRADA SPLITA

Papalićeva 1, 21 000 Split
Tel./fax. 021/360-171, 021/360-172
Email: muzej.grada.splita@mgst.net
www.mgst.net

 

Podrumi Dioklecijanove palače

Dioklecijanova palača u Splitu predstavlja jedno od najbolje sačuvanih ostvarenja kasnoantičkog graditeljstva.  Izgrađena u razdoblju opće nesigurnosti (295.- 305. godine), prema ideji cara Dioklecijana i njegovih vrsnih arhitekata, kreiran je novi tip utvrđene i luksuzne carske rezidencije. Sjeverna polovina ovog monumentalnog zdanja bila je predviđena za smještaj vojske i pomoćnog osoblja, a južna vezana za careve stambene i kultne potrebe.

Stoljetne građevinske aktivnosti izbrisale su izvorni arhitektonski sklop carske rezidencije na gornjoj etaži, no supstrukcije, uvriježeno nazvani Podrumi, u južnom dijelu Dioklecijanove palače, pokazuju izvorni oblik i raspored objekata Dioklecijanovog stana. Izgradnja podrumskih dvorana uvjetovana je geološkom podlogom sačinjenom od morskih hridi koje se strmo spuštaju od sjevera prema jugu. Supstrukcije (prizemne dvorane) su imale ulogu izravnavanja južnog dijela sa sjevernim višim dijelom terena kao i ulogu konstruktivnog podupirača koji je omogućio podizanje carskih odaja na višu razinu, osiguravajući im i zaštitu od prodora vlage s mora i podzemnih voda. Od srednjeg vijeka supstrukcije Dioklecijanove palače počinju se postupno zatrpavati raznovrsnim materijalom s gornje etaže na kojoj se od ranog srednjeg vijeka postupno razvijao i izrastao grad Split.

Tijekom posljednjih pola stoljeća sukcesivno su se provodila arheološka istraživanja u podrumskim dvoranama Dioklecijanove palače. Ona su iznjedrila nove građevinske strukture iz preddioklecijanovog vremena kao i nova saznanja o kasnijoj uporabi pojedinih prostorija. Naime, u istočnom dijelu supstrukcija (19C, 21C, 22C) otkriveni su temeljni ostatci zidova građevine iz ranocarskog perioda, njegovi konstruktivni i dekorativni arhitektonski elementi (Y), ostatci kultnog mjesta – nymphaeum (15 C), kao i nalaz mramornog stola (mensa) iz Dioklecijanove blagavaonice (Y). Podzemene prostorije orijentirane oko otvorenih dvorišta poslužile su kao privremena utočišta već u ranobizatskom periodu (sredina 6. st.), a od ranog srednjeg vijeka (sredina 7. st.) kao trajne podzemne nastambe (20) izbjeglog siromašnijeg sloja stanovništva iz nedaleke Salone. Ostatci prilagođavanja supstrukcija specifičnim uvjetima stanovanja tijekom srednjovjekovnog razdoblja vide se i u dvorištu 15A. U zapadnom dijelu podrumskih prostorija otkriveni su bunari iz preddioklecijanovog vremena (Y), drvene grede u funkciji privremene konstrukcije oplate svoda (4A), te ostatci ranosrednjovjekovne turnjačnice za proizvodnju ulja i vina (4B).

Zapadne dvorane podruma otvorene su za javnost 1959. godine, dok su one istočnog dijela, završetkom opsežnih restauratorsko-konzervatorskih radova, primile prve posjetitelje tek 1996. godine. Dioklecijanova palača uvrštena je u UNESCO-ov popis svjetske baštine 1979. godine.

 

 

The basement halls of Diocletian’s Palace

Diocletian’s Palace in Split is one of the best preserved architectural achievements of Late Antiquity. The emperor Diocletian gathered the finest architects of the time to undertake the construction of this palace, which took place during a tumultuous period (295 – 305 AD). The Palace represented a new type of fortified and luxurious imperial residence, whose northern quarters were designed to accomodate the military and servants, while the southern part served for the Emperor’s residential and religious purposes.

Subsequent centuries of architectural activities permanently altered the original structure of the Palace’s upper floor, but the basement halls in the southern part of the Palace reveal the original floor plan and layout of the Emperor’s residential quarters. Construction of the basement halls was determined by the geological substratum consisting of steep sea cliffs stretched from the north to the south. The architectural purpose of the basement halls was to raise the southern part to the same level as the northern part of the sloping terrain, as well as to provide constructional support which enabled the erection of the imperial quarters to higher level, thus offering protection from sea humidity and groundwater. As the city of Split began its urban development in the early Middle Ages, its inhabitants started to use the Palace basement halls as dumping ground for various materials from the upper floor on which the blossoming city rested.

Archeological research of the Palace basement halls that has been taking place over the past fifty years revealed new structures predating Diocletian’s Palace. It also revealed new insight regarding the later use of certain halls. Specifically, in the eastern part of the substructure (19C, 21C-22C) the remains of a building wall from an early Imperial period were uncovered, its constructional and decorative architectural elements (Y), as well as the remains of a Nymphs’ shrine – nymphaeum (15C), and a marble table (mensa) from Diocletian’s dining halls (Y). The subterranean halls surrounding the open courtyards served as temporary shelters already in the Early Byzantine period (mid-6th century), and from the early Middle Ages (mid-7th century) as permanent subterranean dwellings (20) where the poorer classes from the nearby Salona took refuge. Another example of architectural reworkings of the substructures in order to adjust it to the specific conditions of habitation throughout the Middle Ages can be seen in the remains located in courtyard 15A. Water wells predating the Palace were discovered in the western part of the basement halls (Y), as well as parts of wooden beams in the function of temporary construction of formwork (4A), and remains of an early medieval olive oil and wine press. (4B).

The western halls of the basement opened for public in 1959, while the eastern basement halls, upon completion of the extensive restoration and conservation work, opened to the public as late as 1996. Diocletian’s Palace was declared a UNESCO world heritage site in 1979.

 

 

19C

 

21C 22C

 

Y1

 

15C

 

15A

15A

 

Y2

Y2

 

4A

4A

 

4A(2)

4A(2)

 

4B

4B